Friday, 12 February 2016



Inside Our Earth : ROCK

·        The earth’s crust is made up of rocks of various types.
·        A rock is a natural piece of mineral matter that makes up the earth’s crust.
·        Rocks can be of differnt:
• Colour
• Texture
• Size

Types of Rocks:

• Igneous Rocks
• Sedimentary Rocks
• Metamorphic Rocks

Igneous rocks:

·        The word igneous is derived from the Latin word Ignis which means fire.
·        The rocks formed by the solidification on the cooling of molten magma, are called igneous rocks.
·        Depending on where the molten magma cools, they are of the following types:
• Intrusive Rocks
• Extrusive Rocks

Intrusive Igneous Rocks:

When the molten magma cools deep inside the earth’s crust, intrusive igneous rocks are formed. They
• Cool down slowly
Form large grains
Granite is intrusive igneous rock.
Grinding stones used to prepare paste / powder of spices and grains are made of granite.
Extrusive Igneous Rocks:

·        When the molten magma (lava) comes on the earth’s surface.
·        it rapidly cools down and becomes solid. 
·        Rocks formed in such a manner on the crust are called extrusive igneous rocks.
·        They have a very fine grained structure. 
·        Basalt is an example of extrusive igneous rocks.
·        The Deccan Plateau is made up of basalt rocks.

Sedimentary Rocks :

1.   These rocks get their name from the Latin word sedimentum which means settle down
2.   These rocks are formed by the settling down of sediments. 
3.   Sediments are the smaller particles / fragments that are formed by the breaking down of rocks when they roll down, crack and hit each other. 
4.   These sediments are transported by wind, water etc.
5.   These sediments; when compressed and hardened; form sedimentary rocks.
6.   Sandstone is an example of sedimentary rock. It is made up of grains of sand. 
7.   The sedimentary rocks may also contain fossils of plants, animals and other micro – organisms that once lived on them.

Metamorphic rocks :

1.   The Greek word ‘metamorphose’ which means change of form, is the root of the word metamorphic. 
2.   In other words, these are the rocks that are formed when the igneous and sedimentary rocks change their form under the following two circumstances:
• Great heat and
• Great pressure
3.   The following are the examples of metamorphic rocks:
a. Slate: Clay becomes slate after metamorphosis.
b. Marble: Limestone becomes marble after metamorphosis.

Rock Cycle

·        A cyclic manner is followed in transformation of one type of rock to another type under certain conditions.
·        This process of transformation of the rock from one to another is called the rock cycle.

Do You Know?

• The deepest mine (4 km deep) is in South Africa. Engineers have dug a hole about 6 km deep in search of oil.
• A 6000 km deep hole in the ocean floor needs to be dug to reach the centre of the earth (which is not possible!).
• The radius of the earth is 6371 km.
• In the descending order of the volume of the earth (thickness) at its three layers, we first have the core (83 %), then the mantle (16 %) and finally the crust (0.5 %).

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for putting this. This is very useful and analysis our self