Monday, 8 February 2016

The Himalayan Rivers:

The drainage systems in India can be divided into two major groups, viz. the Himalayan Rivers and the Peninsular Rivers.


The Himalayan Rivers:
Most of the Himalayan Rivers are perennial, i.e. they have water throughout the year.

River System:
A river alongwith its tributaries forms a river system.
The Indus River System:
• The river Indus originates in Tibet; near Lake Mansarowar. It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir.
• Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza are the main tributaries which join the Indus in Kashmir region.
• Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join together and enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.
•After that, the Indus flows southwards and finally reaches the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.
• Indus is 2900 km long. The Indus plain has a very gentle slope. A little over one-third of the Indus basin is located in India; in the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The rest of the portion is in Pakistan.'

The Ganga River System :
• The headwaters of Ganga are called Bhagirathi. It is fed by the Gnagotri Glacier. It is joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.
• Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains at Haridwar.
• Yamuna, Ghaghra, Gandak and Kosi are the major tributaries of Ganga.
• Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas. It meets Ganga at Allahabad.
• Gaghra, Gandak and Kosi rise in the Nepal Himalaya.
• Chambal, Betwa and Son are the major tributaries which come from the peninsular uplands.
• After taking waters from various tributaries, Ganga flows towards east till Farakka (West Bengal). The river bifurcates at Farakka. The Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows towards south to the Bay of Bengal.
• The mainstream flows southwards into Bangladesh; where it is joined by the Brahmaputra. It is known as Meghan; further downstream.
• Finally, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal forming the Sunderban Delta. The total length of Ganga is 2500 km.
The Brahmaputra River System:
• The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet; east of Mansarowar lake. It is a little longer than the Indus. 
• Most of the course of the Brahmaputra lies outside India. It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas.
• After reaching Namcha Barwa, it enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge. It is known as Dihang in this region. It is joined by Dibang, Lohit, Kenula and many other tribuatries and finally forms the Brahmaputra in Assam.
• Unlike other north Indian rivers the Brahmaputra gets huge deposits of silt on its bed. This results in rising of the river bed. It also shifts its channel frequently.

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